Version 5 supported

HTTP middlewares

HTTP Middlewares allow you to add code that will run before or after a request has been delegated to the router. These might be used for authentication, logging, caching, request processing, and many other purposes.

To create a middleware class, implement HTTPMiddleware and define the process() method. You can do anything you like in this method, but to continue normal execution, you should call $response = $delegate($request) at some point in this method.

In addition, you should return an HTTPResponse object. In normal cases, this should be the value returned by $delegate, perhaps with some modification. However, sometimes you will deliberately return a different response, e.g. an error response or a redirection.

// app/src/Middleware/CustomMiddleware.php
namespace App\Middleware;

use SilverStripe\Control\HTTPRequest;
use SilverStripe\Control\HTTPResponse;
use SilverStripe\Control\Middleware\HTTPMiddleware;

class CustomMiddleware implements HTTPMiddleware
    private string $secret = '';

    public function setSecret(string $secret): static
        $this->secret = $secret;
        return $this;

    public function process(HTTPRequest $request, callable $delegate)
        // You can break execution by not calling $delegate.
        if ($request->getHeader('X-Special-Header') !== $this->secret) {
            return new HTTPResponse('You missed the special header', 400);

        // You can modify the request before passing it on to be processed
        // For example, this might force JSON responses
        $request->addHeader('Accept', 'application/json');

        // If you want normal behaviour to occur, make sure you call $delegate($request)
        $response = $delegate($request);

        // You can modify the response after it has been generated
        $response->addHeader('X-Middleware-Applied', 'CustomMiddleware');

        // Don't forget to the return the response!
        return $response;

Once you have created your middleware class, you must attach it to the Director using one of the below configuration options to make use of it.

Global middleware

By adding the service or class name to the Director->Middlewares array property via injector, a middleware will be executed on every request:

# app/_config/middlewares.yml
Name: myrequestprocessors
  - requestprocessors
        CustomMiddleware: '%$App\Middleware\CustomMiddleware'

Because these are service names, you can configure properties into a custom service if you would like:

# app/_config/middlewares.yml
        CustomMiddleware: '%$ConfiguredMiddleware'
    class: 'App\Middleware\CustomMiddleware'
      Secret: "DIFFERENT-ONE"

See Dependency Injection for more information about the injector configuration syntax.

Route-specific middleware

Alternatively, you can apply middlewares to a specific route. These will be processed after the global middlewares. You can do this by using the RequestHandlerMiddlewareAdapter class as a replacement for your controller, and register it as a service with a Middlewares property. The controller which does the work should be registered under the RequestHandler property.

# app/_config/middlewares.yml
    class: SilverStripe\Control\Middleware\RequestHandlerMiddlewareAdapter
      RequestHandler: '%$App\Control\MyController'
        - '%$App\Middleware\CustomMiddleware'
        - '%$App\Middleware\AnotherMiddleware'
      Controller: '%$SpecialRouteMiddleware'

Application middleware

Some use cases will require a middleware to run before the Silverstripe CMS has been fully bootstrapped (e.g: Updating the HTTPRequest before Silverstripe CMS routes it to a controller). This can be achieved by editing the Silverstripe CMS entry point file.

This file will be located in your own codebase at public/index.php. Find the line that instantiate HTTPApplication. Call the addMiddleware method on the HTTPApplication instance and pass it an instance of your middleware. This must be done before the request is handled.

// public/index.php

use App\Middleware\MyApplicationMiddleware;
use SilverStripe\Control\HTTPApplication;
use SilverStripe\Core\CoreKernel;

// ...

$kernel = new CoreKernel(BASE_PATH);
$app = new HTTPApplication($kernel);
$app->addMiddleware(new MyApplicationMiddleware());

// ...

It's pretty rare to need to modify the index.php file directly like this - if you need to do it, make sure you clearly document this change somewhere, e.g. in your project's file if you have one, both for your own reference and for any other developers working on the project with you.

Beware that by this point, the Silverstripe framework features you normally rely on (e.g.: ORM, Injector, services configured by Injector, the config API) won't be available in your middleware or in index.php because they won't have been initialised yet.

For example, Silverstripe's autoloading functionality won't work in index.php. So you might have to take additional steps to load your custom middleware class if it isn't being autoloaded by composer's autoloading.

We recommend explicitly configuring autoloading in your composer.json file. Remember to call composer dump-autoload to regenerate your autoloader.

Alternatively, you can manually include the file containing your custom middleware with a require call. e.g:

require __DIR__ . '/../app/src/MyApplicationMiddleware.php';

Note that using require in this way won't automatically load any additional classes your middleware relies on.

API documentation