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Fixtures

To test functionality correctly, we must use consistent data. If we are testing our code with the same data each time, we can trust our tests to yield reliable results and to identify when the logic changes. Each test run in SilverStripe starts with a fresh database containing no records. Fixtures provide a way to describe the initial data to load into the database. The SapphireTest class takes care of populating a test database with data from fixtures - all we have to do is define them.

To include your fixture file in your tests, you should define it as your $fixture_file:

app/tests/MyNewTest.php

use SilverStripe\Dev\SapphireTest;

class MyNewTest extends SapphireTest
{
    protected static $fixture_file = 'fixtures.yml';
}

You can also use an array of fixture files, if you want to use parts of multiple other tests.

If you are using SilverStripe\Dev\TestOnly dataobjects in your fixtures, you must declare these classes within the $extra_dataobjects variable.

app/tests/MyNewTest.php

use SilverStripe\Dev\SapphireTest;

class MyNewTest extends SapphireTest
{
    protected static $fixture_file = [
        'fixtures.yml',
        'otherfixtures.yml'
    ];

    protected static $extra_dataobjects = [
        Player::class,
        Team::class,
    ];
}

Typically, you'd have a separate fixture file for each class you are testing - although overlap between tests is common.

Fixtures are defined in YAML. YAML is a markup language which is deliberately simple and easy to read, so it is ideal for fixture generation. Say we have the following two DataObjects:

use SilverStripe\ORM\DataObject;
use SilverStripe\Dev\TestOnly;

class Player extends DataObject implements TestOnly
{
    private static $db = [
        'Name' => 'Varchar(255)'
    ];

    private static $has_one = [
        'Team' => 'Team'
    ];
}

class Team extends DataObject implements TestOnly
{
    private static $db = [
        'Name' => 'Varchar(255)',
        'Origin' => 'Varchar(255)'
    ];

    private static $has_many = [
        'Players' => 'Player'
    ];
}

We can represent multiple instances of them in YAML as follows:

app/tests/fixtures.yml


Team:
  hurricanes:
    Name: The Hurricanes
    Origin: Wellington
  crusaders:
    Name: The Crusaders
    Origin: Canterbury
Player:
  john:
    Name: John
    Team: =>Team.hurricanes
  joe:
    Name: Joe
    Team: =>Team.crusaders
  jack:
    Name: Jack
    Team: =>Team.crusaders

This YAML is broken up into three levels, signified by the indentation of each line. In the first level of indentation, Player and Team, represent the class names of the objects we want to be created.

The second level, john/joe/jack & hurricanes/crusaders, are identifiers. Each identifier you specify represents a new object and can be referenced in the PHP using objFromFixture

$player = $this->objFromFixture('Player', 'jack');

The third and final level represents each individual object's fields.

A field can either be provided with raw data (such as the names for our Players), or we can define a relationship, as seen by the fields prefixed with =>.

Each one of our Players has a relationship to a Team, this is shown with the Team field for each Player being set to =>Team. followed by a team name.

Take the player John in our example YAML, his team is the Hurricanes which is represented by =>Team.hurricanes. This sets the has_one relationship for John with with the Team object hurricanes.

Note that we use the name of the relationship (Team), and not the name of the database field (TeamID).

Also be aware the target of a relationship must be defined before it is referenced, for example the hurricanes team must appear in the fixture file before the line Team: =>Team.hurricanes.

This style of relationship declaration can be used for any type of relationship (i.e has_one, has_many, many_many).

We can also declare the relationships conversely. Another way we could write the previous example is:

Player:
  john:
    Name: John
  joe:
    Name: Joe
  jack:
    Name: Jack
Team:
  hurricanes:
    Name: Hurricanes
    Origin: Wellington
    Players: =>Player.john
  crusaders:
    Name: Crusaders
    Origin: Canterbury
    Players: =>Player.joe,=>Player.jack

The database is populated by instantiating DataObject objects and setting the fields declared in the YAML, then calling write() on those objects. Take for instance the hurricances record in the YAML. It is equivalent to writing:

$team = new Team([
    'Name' => 'Hurricanes',
    'Origin' => 'Wellington'
]);

$team->write();

$team->Players()->add($john);

As the YAML fixtures will call write, any onBeforeWrite() or default value logic will be executed as part of the test.

Fixtures for namespaced classes

As of SilverStripe 4 you will need to use fully qualfied class names in your YAML fixture files. In the above examples, they belong to the global namespace so there is nothing requires, but if you have a deeper DataObject, or it has a relationship to models that are part of the framework for example, you will need to include their namespaces:

MyProject\Model\Player:
  john:
    Name: join
MyProject\Model\Team:
  crusaders:
    Name: Crusaders
    Origin: Canterbury
    Players: =>MyProject\Model\Player.john

If your tests are failing and your database has table names that follow the fully qualified class names, you've probably forgotten to implement private static $table_name = 'Player'; on your namespaced class. This property was introduced in SilverStripe 4 to reduce data migration work. See DataObject for an example.

Defining many_many_extraFields

many_many relations can have additional database fields attached to the relationship. For example we may want to declare the role each player has in the team.

use SilverStripe\ORM\DataObject;

class Player extends DataObject
{
    private static $db = [
        'Name' => 'Varchar(255)'
    ];

    private static $belongs_many_many = [
        'Teams' => 'Team'
    ];
}

class Team extends DataObject
{
    private static $db = [
        'Name' => 'Varchar(255)'
    ];

    private static $many_many = [
        'Players' => 'Player'
    ];

    private static $many_many_extraFields = [
        'Players' => [
            'Role' => "Varchar"
        ]
    ];
}

To provide the value for the many_many_extraField use the YAML list syntax.

Player:
  john:
    Name: John
  joe:
    Name: Joe
  jack:
    Name: Jack
Team:
  hurricanes:
    Name: The Hurricanes
    Players:
      - =>Player.john:
         Role: Captain

  crusaders:
    Name: The Crusaders
    Players:
      - =>Player.joe:
        Role: Captain
      - =>Player.jack:
        Role: Winger

Fixture Factories

While manually defined fixtures provide full flexibility, they offer very little in terms of structure and convention.

Alternatively, you can use the FixtureFactory class, which allows you to set default values, callbacks on object creation, and dynamic/lazy value setting.

SapphireTest uses FixtureFactory under the hood when it is provided with YAML based fixtures.

The idea is that rather than instantiating objects directly, we'll have a factory class for them. This factory can have blueprints defined on it, which tells the factory how to instantiate an object of a specific type. Blueprints need a name, which is usually set to the class it creates such as Member or Page.

Blueprints are auto-created for all available DataObject subclasses, you only need to instantiate a factory to start using them.

use SilverStripe\Core\Injector\Injector;

$factory = Injector::inst()->create('FixtureFactory');

$obj = $factory->createObject('Team', 'hurricanes');

In order to create an object with certain properties, just add a third argument:

$obj = $factory->createObject('Team', 'hurricanes', [
    'Name' => 'My Value'
]);

It is important to remember that fixtures are referenced by arbitrary identifiers ('hurricanes'). These are internally mapped to their database identifiers.

After we've created this object in the factory, getId is used to retrieve it by the identifier.

$databaseId = $factory->getId('Team', 'hurricanes');

Default Properties

Blueprints can be overwritten in order to customise their behavior. For example, if a Fixture does not provide a Team name, we can set the default to be Unknown Team.

$factory->define('Team', [
    'Name' => 'Unknown Team'
]);

Dependent Properties

Values can be set on demand through anonymous functions, which can either generate random defaults, or create composite values based on other fixture data.

$factory->define('Member', [
    'Email' => function($obj, $data, $fixtures) {
        if(isset($data['FirstName']) {
            $obj->Email = strtolower($data['FirstName']) . '@example.com';
        }
    },
    'Score' => function($obj, $data, $fixtures) {
        $obj->Score = rand(0,10);
    }
)];

Relations

Model relations can be expressed through the same notation as in the YAML fixture format described earlier, through the => prefix on data values.

$obj = $factory->createObject('Team', 'hurricanes', [
    'MyHasManyRelation' => '=>Player.john,=>Player.joe'
]);

Callbacks

Sometimes new model instances need to be modified in ways which can't be expressed in their properties, for example to publish a page, which requires a method call.

$blueprint = Injector::inst()->create('FixtureBlueprint', 'Member');

$blueprint->addCallback('afterCreate', function($obj, $identifier, $data, $fixtures) {
    $obj->copyVersionToStage(Versioned::DRAFT, Versioned::LIVE);
});

$page = $factory->define('Page', $blueprint);

Available callbacks:

  • beforeCreate($identifier, $data, $fixtures)
  • afterCreate($obj, $identifier, $data, $fixtures)

Multiple Blueprints

Data of the same type can have variations, for example forum members vs. CMS admins could both inherit from the Member class, but have completely different properties. This is where named blueprints come in. By default, blueprint names equal the class names they manage.

$memberBlueprint = Injector::inst()->create('FixtureBlueprint', 'Member', 'Member');

$adminBlueprint = Injector::inst()->create('FixtureBlueprint', 'AdminMember', 'Member');

$adminBlueprint->addCallback('afterCreate', function($obj, $identifier, $data, $fixtures) {
    if(isset($fixtures['Group']['admin'])) {
        $adminGroup = Group::get()->byId($fixtures['Group']['admin']);
        $obj->Groups()->add($adminGroup);
    }
});

$member = $factory->createObject('Member'); // not in admin group

$admin = $factory->createObject('AdminMember'); // in admin group

API Documentation

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