Environment management

As part of website development and hosting it is natural for our sites to be hosted on several different environments. These can be our laptops for local development, a testing server for customers to test changes on, or a production server.

For each of these environments we may require slightly different configurations for our servers. This could be our debug level, caching backends, or - of course - sensitive information such as database credentials.

To manage environment variables, as well as other server globals, the SilverStripe\Core\Environment class provides a set of APIs and helpers.

Security considerations

Sensitive credentials should not be stored in a VCS or project code and should only be stored on the environment in question. When using live environments the use of .env files is discouraged and instead one should use "first class" environment variables.

If you do use a .env file on your servers, you must ensure that external access to .env files is blocked by the webserver.

Managing environment variables with .env files

By default a file named .env must be placed in your project root (ie: the same folder as your composer.json) or the parent directory. If this file exists, it will be automatically loaded by the framework and the environment variables will be set. An example .env file is included in the default installer named .env.example.

Note: The file must be named exactly .env and not any variation (such as mysite.env or .env.mysite) or it will not be detected automatically. If you wish to load environment variables from a file with a different name, you will need to do so manually. See the Including an extra .env file section below for more information.

Managing environment variables with Apache

You can set "real" environment variables using Apache. Please see the Apache docs for more information

How to access the environment variables

Accessing the environment varaibles should be done via the Environment::getEnv() method

use SilverStripe\Core\Environment;

Individual settings can be assigned via Environment::setEnv() or Environment::putEnv() methods.

use SilverStripe\Core\Environment;
Environment::setEnv('API_KEY', 'AABBCCDDEEFF012345');

Including an extra .env file

Sometimes it may be useful to include an extra .env file - on a shared local development environment where all database credentials could be the same. To do this, you can add this snippet to your mysite/_config.php file:

Note that by default variables cannot be overloaded from this file; Existing values will be preferred over values in this file.

use SilverStripe\Core\EnvironmentLoader;
$env = BASE_PATH . '/mysite/.env';
$loader = new EnvironmentLoader();

Core environment variables

SilverStripe core environment variables are listed here, though you're free to define any you need for your application.

Name Description
SS_DATABASE_CLASS The database class to use, MySQLPDODatabase, MySQLDatabase, MSSQLDatabase, etc. defaults to MySQLPDODatabase.
SS_DATABASE_SERVER The database server to use, defaulting to localhost.
SS_DATABASE_USERNAME The database username (mandatory).
SS_DATABASE_PASSWORD The database password (mandatory).
SS_DATABASE_PORT The database port.
SS_DATABASE_SUFFIX A suffix to add to the database name.
SS_DATABASE_PREFIX A prefix to add to the database name.
SS_DATABASE_TIMEZONE Set the database timezone to something other than the system timezone.
SS_DATABASE_NAME Set the database name. Assumes the $database global variable in your config is missing or empty.
SS_DATABASE_CHOOSE_NAME Boolean/Int. If defined, then the system will choose a default database name for you if one isn't give in the $database variable. The database name will be "SS_" followed by the name of the folder into which you have installed SilverStripe. If this is enabled, it means that the phpinstaller will work out of the box without the installer needing to alter any files. This helps prevent accidental changes to the environment. If SS_DATABASE_CHOOSE_NAME is an integer greater than one, then an ancestor folder will be used for the database name. This is handy for a site that's hosted from /sites/examplesite/www or /buildbot/allmodules-2.3/build. If it's 2, the parent folder will be chosen; if it's 3 the grandparent, and so on.
SS_DEPRECATION_ENABLED Enable deprecation notices for this environment.
SS_ENVIRONMENT_TYPE The environment type: dev, test or live.
SS_DEFAULT_ADMIN_USERNAME The username of the default admin. This is a user with administrative privileges.
SS_DEFAULT_ADMIN_PASSWORD The password of the default admin. This will not be stored in the database.
SS_USE_BASIC_AUTH Protect the site with basic auth (good for test sites).
When using CGI/FastCGI with Apache, you will have to add the RewriteRule .* - [E=HTTP_AUTHORIZATION:%{HTTP:Authorization}] rewrite rule to your .htaccess file
SS_SEND_ALL_EMAILS_TO If you define this constant, all emails will be redirected to this address.
SS_SEND_ALL_EMAILS_FROM If you define this constant, all emails will be sent from this address.
SS_ERROR_LOG Relative path to the log file.
SS_PROTECTED_ASSETS_PATH Path to secured assets - defaults to ASSET_PATH/.protected
SS_TRUSTED_PROXY_IPS IP address or CIDR range to trust proxy headers from. If left blank no proxy headers are trusted. Can be set to 'none' (trust none) or '*' (trust all)
SS_ALLOWED_HOSTS A comma deliminated list of hostnames the site is allowed to respond to
SS_MANIFESTCACHE The manifest cache to use (defaults to file based caching). Must be a CacheInterface or CacheFactory class name
SS_IGNORE_DOT_ENV If set the .env file will be ignored. This is good for live to mitigate any performance implications of loading the .env file
SS_BASE_URL The url to use when it isn't determinable by other means (eg: for CLI commands)
SS_CONFIGSTATICMANIFEST Set to SS_ConfigStaticManifest_Reflection to use the Silverstripe 4 Reflection config manifest (speed improvement during dev/build and ?flush)
SS_DATABASE_SSL_KEY Absolute path to SSL key file
SS_DATABASE_SSL_CERT Absolute path to SSL certificate file
SS_DATABASE_SSL_CA Absolute path to SSL Certificate Authority bundle file
SS_DATABASE_SSL_CIPHER Optional setting for custom SSL cipher

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