Email

Creating and sending email in Silverstripe CMS is done through the Email and Mailer classes. This document covers how to create an Email instance, customise it with a HTML template, then send it through a custom Mailer.

Configuration

Silverstripe CMS provides an API over the top of the SwiftMailer PHP library which comes with an extensive list of "transports" for sending mail via different services.

For legacy reasons, Silverstripe CMS 4 defaults to using the built-in PHP mail() command via a deprecated class Swift_MailTransport. However, using this layer is less secure and is strongly discouraged.

It's highly recommended you upgrade to a more robust transport for additional security. The Sendmail transport is the most common one. The sendmail binary is widely available across most Linux/Unix servers.

You can use any of the Transport classes provided natively by SwiftMailer. There are also countless PHP libraries offering custom Transports to integrate with third party mailing service:

To swap out the transport used by the Mailer, create a file app/_config/email.yml

To use a sendmail binary:

---
Name: myemailconfig
After:
  - '#emailconfig'
---
SilverStripe\Core\Injector\Injector:
  Swift_Transport:
    class: Swift_SendmailTransport

To use SMTP:

---
Name: myemailconfig
After:
  - '#emailconfig'
---
SilverStripe\Core\Injector\Injector:
  Swift_Transport:
    class: Swift_SmtpTransport
    properties:
      Host: smtp.host.com
      Port: <port>
      Encryption: tls
    calls:
      Username: [ setUsername, ['`APP_SMTP_USERNAME`'] ]
      Password: [ setPassword, ['`APP_SMTP_PASSWORD`'] ]
      AuthMode: [ setAuthMode, ['login'] ]

Note the usage of backticks to designate environment variables for the credentials - ensure you set these in your .env file or in your webserver configuration.

Mailer Configuration for dev environments

You may wish to use a different mailer configuration in your development environment. This can be used to suppress outgoing messages or to capture them for debugging purposes in a service like MailCatcher.

You can suppress all emails by using the Swift_Transport_NullTransport.

---
Name: mydevemailconfig
After:
  - '#emailconfig'
Only:
  environment: dev
---
SilverStripe\Core\Injector\Injector:
  Swift_Transport:
    class: Swift_Transport_NullTransport

If you're using MailCatcher, or a similar tool, you can tell Swift_SendmailTransport to use a different binary.

---
Name: mydevemailconfig
After:
  - '#emailconfig'
Only:
  environment: dev
---
SilverStripe\Core\Injector\Injector:
  Swift_Transport:
    class: Swift_SendmailTransport
    constructor:
      0: '/usr/bin/env catchmail -t'

Testing that email works

You must ensure emails are being sent from your production environment. You can do this by testing that the Lost password form available at /Security/lostpassword sends an email to your inbox, or with the following code snippet that can be run via a SilverStripe\Dev\BuildTask:

$email = new Email('no-reply@mydomain.com', 'myuser@gmail.com', 'My test subject', 'My email body text');
$email->send();

Using the code snippet above also tests that the ability to set the "from" address is working correctly.

Usage

Sending plain text only

use SilverStripe\Control\Email\Email;

$email = new Email($from, $to, $subject, $body);
$email->sendPlain();

Sending combined HTML and plain text

By default, emails are sent in both HTML and Plaintext format. A plaintext representation is automatically generated from the system by stripping HTML markup, or transforming it where possible (e.g. <strong>text</strong> is converted to *text*).

$email = new Email($from, $to, $subject, $body);
$email->send();
The default HTML template for emails is named GenericEmail and is located in vendor/silverstripe/framework/templates/SilverStripe/Email/. To customise this template, copy it to the app/templates/Email/ folder or use setHTMLTemplate when you create the Email instance.

Templates

HTML emails can use custom templates using the same template language as your website template. You can also pass the email object additional information using the setData and addData methods.

app/templates/Email/MyCustomEmail.ss

<h1>Hi $Member.FirstName</h1>
<p>You can go to $Link.</p>

The PHP Logic..

$email = SilverStripe\Control\Email\Email::create()
    ->setHTMLTemplate('Email\\MyCustomEmail') 
    ->setData([
        'Member' => Security::getCurrentUser(),
        'Link'=> $link,
    ])
    ->setFrom($from)
    ->setTo($to)
    ->setSubject($subject);

if ($email->send()) {
    //email sent successfully
} else {
    // there may have been 1 or more failures
}
As we've added a new template file (MyCustomEmail) make sure you clear the Silverstripe CMS cache for your changes to take affect.

Custom plain templates

By default Silverstripe CMS will generate a plain text representation of the email from the HTML body. However if you'd like to specify your own own plaintext version/template you can use $email->setPlainTemplate() to render a custom view of the plain email:

$email = new SilverStripe\Control\Email\Email();
$email->setPlainTemplate('MyPlanTemplate');
$this->send();

Administrator Emails

You can set the default sender address of emails through the Email.admin_email configuration setting.

app/_config/app.yml

SilverStripe\Control\Email\Email:
  admin_email: support@example.com

To add a display name, set admin_email as follow.

SilverStripe\Control\Email\Email:
  admin_email:
    support@example.com: 'Support team'
Remember, setting a from address that doesn't come from your domain (such as the users email) will likely see your email marked as spam. If you want to send from another address think about using the setReplyTo method.

You will also have to remove the SS_SEND_ALL_EMAILS_FROM environment variable if it is present.

Redirecting Emails

There are several other configuration settings to manipulate the email server.

  • SilverStripe\Control\Email\Email.send_all_emails_to will redirect all emails sent to the given address. All recipients will be removed (including CC and BCC addresses). This is useful for testing and staging servers where you do not wish to send emails out. For debugging the original addresses are added as X-Original-* headers on the email.
  • SilverStripe\Control\Email\Email.cc_all_emails_to and SilverStripe\Control\Email\Email.bcc_all_emails_to will add an additional recipient in the BCC / CC header. These are good for monitoring system-generated correspondence on the live systems.

Configuration of those properties looks like the following:

app/_config.php

use SilverStripe\Control\Email\Email;
use SilverStripe\Core\Config\Config;
if(Director::isLive()) {
    Config::modify()->set(Email::class, 'bcc_all_emails_to', "client@example.com");
} else {
    Config::modify()->set(Email::class, 'send_all_emails_to', "developer@example.com");
}

Setting custom "Reply To" email address.

For email messages that should have an email address which is replied to that actually differs from the original "from" email, do the following. This is encouraged especially when the domain responsible for sending the message isn't necessarily the same which should be used for return correspondence and should help prevent your message from being marked as spam.

$email = new Email(..);
$email->setReplyTo('reply@example.com');

Setting Custom Headers

For email headers which do not have getters or setters (like setTo(), setFrom()) you can manipulate the underlying Swift_Message that we provide a wrapper for.

$email = new Email(...);
$email->getSwiftMessage()->getHeaders()->addTextHeader('HeaderName', 'HeaderValue');
See this Wikipedia entry for a list of header names.

Disabling Emails

If required, you can also disable email sending entirely. This is useful for testing and staging servers where you do not wish to send emails out.

---
Name: myemailconfig
Only:
  Environment: dev
---
SilverStripe\Core\Injector\Injector:
  Swift_Transport:
    class: Swift_NullTransport

SwiftMailer Documentation

For further information on SwiftMailer, consult their docs: http://swiftmailer.org/docs/introduction.html

API Documentation